Staphylococcus Aureus Lipase 1 Enhances Influenza A Virus Replication
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics of respiratory disease in humans, often complicated by secondary coinfection with bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus Here, we report that the S. aureus secreted protein lipase 1 enhances IAV replication in vitro in primary cells, including human lung fibroblasts. The proviral activity of lipase 1 is dependent on its enzymatic function, acts late in the viral life cycle, and results in increased infectivity through positive modulation of virus budding. Furthermore, the proviral effect of lipase 1 on IAV is exhibited during in vivo infection of embryonated hen's eggs and, importantly, increases the yield of a vaccine strain of IAV by approximately 5-fold. Thus, we have identified the first S. aureus protein to enhance IAV replication, suggesting a potential role in coinfection. Importantly, this activity may be harnessed to address global shortages of influenza vaccines.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and sporadic pandemics of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial coinfection by organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus is the most common complication of primary IAV infection and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report the first identified S. aureus factor (lipase 1) that enhances IAV replication during infection via positive modulation of virus budding. The effect is observed in vivo in embryonated hen's eggs and greatly enhances the yield of a vaccine strain, a finding that could be applied to address global shortages of influenza vaccines.